Are you looking for some design books to read this summer? Well, to my surprise I found a huge assortment online, completely FREE. Wow, I was rather surprised as there are quite a lot of famous books in here. Why not check it out yourself?
First I have to mention this site called freeuxbooks, sounds kinda shady though right? I mean these can’t really all be legit free? Well, I was able to download a few books off it without any real issue. They all are linked to this website called Academia which is for research papers. I’m not exactly sure how that works with copyright though, but considering some of these books were made from blogs, I think they may have something… Though, it still is a little fishy, correct me in the comments if I’m wrong!
There are also a variety of resources outside of that. UXplanet posted a variety of free resources here. I posted some below that look interesting they are fully web-based so enjoy and meant to be shared. This page really promotes sharing too.
Not sure if it’s legit either… But it seems most design books are now available…
I’ve decided to cover the basics of project management here. I did not get into any big technical tools but just covered the 3 things you should know before committing to a project.
The 3 things would be defining your goals, understanding your resources, and understanding why projects fail.
1. What are your goals? (Why & Who)
I think this is something honestly most people don’t want to think about. It’s far more exciting to just start building out some project and seeing where it takes you then to stop and ask Why you are building. I’m guilty of skipping this step often because just starting a project can be a lot of fun. Figuring out Who you are building for will help you focus a project. I’m going to just for the sake of simplicity break this down into three parts.
Do you want to sell this project? Then focus on what people want to buy. Look at your competition and see why they are successful and why they failed. Tools like SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) can be a quick way to do this, alongside Competitor Analysis.
Is this just a showcase piece? Then focus on what types of strengths this brings to your portfolio. Think about why these pieces are important and who you want to see them. Showcase pieces are really the middle ground between a product for sell (yourself/team/tool/whatever) and doing something to learn. Getting feedback on showcase pieces is a good way to grow.
Are you doing this to learn/have fun? Sometimes being willing to play and learn is the best way to grow. There are two approaches to this I see. One is to followtutorials, and learn how to think about a project, the other is to try and built it yourself and learn to how to do creative problem-solving. There are benefits to both methods and realizing the value of both methods helps keep you from getting burnt out or stuck.
2. What are your resources & scope? (How, What & When)
I think the how is something we often assume, or at least I do. I think being able to take a step back and look over the scope of what I want to achieve is important. Do I want to spend a weekend doing this or the next 5 years? What will I need to get this done? What am I willing to give up to make this happen is also something to consider, if you don’t have a lot of time either scope or cost will have to increase to try and maintain quality for example.
As someone who has hired contractors to work under me before, I can tell you, that triangle is a pain. Balancing my budget, my time and scope can be a huge headache.
How to approach project management
Some ways people approach scoping projects is with different mindsets such as Minimum Viable Product (MVP) – a way to create the most basic product necessary for feedback.
Another method becoming more common is creating products with the Minimum Marketable Feature (MMF) mindset, the idea is what is the minimum I need to sell this product.
The difference between MVP and MMF is one (MVP) is focused on prototyping (often for shareholders), the other is focused on being just good enough quality to sell (directly to consumers), so it’s beyond a basic prototype.
These two tools – MVP and MMF are based off of the Agile mindset.
Agile is a project management style of separating tasks and working on them in short sprints then getting feedback. Often these short bursts of work are around 1-4 weeks long but they can be longer or shorter depending on needs. Agile is great for projects with independent components such as one person changing the menus art and another person programming them. Agile doesn’t very work for dependent components though, Waterfall is used then.
Waterfall is very common in art-focused fields where you have to go step by step. If you don’t have a script you can’t design a character, if you don’t have a character you can’t create animations, and every step is dependent on the step before it. It becomes VERY hard to change directions with Waterfall systems, with Agile it is much easier. Neither is wrong, they just serve two different purposes.
In a nutshell if you have a set vision the waterfall method is very likely what you need, if you want feedback from outsiders then agile is better suited.
Because waterfall methods are so vision focused they have a very high failure rate compared to agile projects. Movies flop all the time and it’s important to understand why.
3. Where do projects fail? Back-up’s, design and technical debt
When it comes to creating products design is key. With Waterfall, product design is done in preproduction and does not really change, so the design needs to be really really strong. Agile products can have some weaker designs in the beginning but they have to build up a reasonable design early or else they may suffer technical debt long term.
Technical debt can lead to redoing work, throwing away work and/or poor quality with unfixable bugs or designs. You can avoid or manage technical debt by working on good design practices, such as having good documentation, testing designs (through prototyping and other forms of testing), strong collaboration and refactoring & cleaning up the project as you go.
Some systems that can help with this is source/ version control. Good source control makes it easy to roll back changes if they cause issues which allows for more experimenting & cleaning, it makes collaboration easier, and most have built-in ways to leave documentation of what you have done. Don’t mistake this documentation for proper project design though.
Another tool that really helps is design documents. There are a lot of types of design docs such as Game Design Docs (GDD), Developer style guides, Visual/brand style guides, Model Sheets, business plans among other forms of technical design. These documents help explain what the product is and define the requirements for the product, though in many cases they may be guidelines they are very important if you want to explain (or remember) what makes your product what it is.
Anyway to sum it up..
Think about who your audience is
Think about why you are building the project
Think about what resources you have
Think about how you will scope the project & when you plan to finish
Think about where you struggle and what tools/outside resources you can use to overcome that.
A competitor to Adobe Illustrator, for one low price of $50 you can own this lovely software perfect for Vector design work or 2D artwork created from points and paths not based on raster pixels but perfectly calculated curves and lines.
Illustrator came out in 1987, and Affinity Designer 2014 (Windows version 2016) and despite the wide gap in years Affinity Design has caught up well and added features Illustrator with its bloated history has not yet received. The most notable difference is Ease of Use, affinity design makes it easy to get started when working on a design. If you have a few hours you can quickly master Affinity Design.
Some features that Affinity Design has that Illustrator does not is wide file support. Affinity Design also has built-in Persona’s that allow you to easily combine Vector & Vaster images. They also easily allow you to switch a file into any of their software so if you have Affinity Publisher you can easily open up Affinity Design files.
Affinity Design allows unlimited zoom, artboards, undo, and history snapshots. It’s very fast compared to Illustrator but is still missing a few key features such as tracing, mesh tools, blend and knife tools. The filters are lacking as well but for $50 one time vs $250+ per year, it’s worth the price. Many people compare it to CS5 toolset wise which is not bad. My favorite feature would be Power Duplicate which allows me to paste an object at different scales or rotations depending on the last pasted object using Ctrl + C to copy and Ctrl + J to paste with the changes.
Similar to Adobe’s Indesign, Affinity Publisher is available for creating books and print material. It’s easy to use and works well with Affinity Design. I’ve used it to produce three books for print and recommend it as a quick way to work on print production and handle text specifically. It’s still missing a lot of key features but worked well enough for my purposes. Did mention all Affinity software has a spellcheck feature built in?
While I could mention Affinity Photo, I still have found Adobe Photoshop to be better overall and haven’t seen a killer feature from Photo that would make me switch but I hope in the future they find a way. I’d like to completely get rid of Adobe at some point.
Clip Studio Paint
It’s built for professionals. If you are looking for a tool that allows you to create comics, books, animations, or anything focused on illustration with a vector attitude this is the software for you. They have an incredible free & paid asset store (Also as an American, the store is super cheap! $20 will last you a good while), amazing brushes, backgrounds and other tools. I recommend this software for artists who are into animation and comics. The downsides is because it is a Japanese product be prepared to work out translating some stuff on the asset store, they have a button to do it for you, but when searching its still good to know to look for 枝 instead of branch as you’ll get better results with the former. Check it out
Above shows vectors brushes, perspective & ruler tools (they have some amazing tools!), 3D models used to help aid with drawing (I mainly use them for background work) and page management. I think the page management could use a little work but overall it’s great, I use affinity publisher for better page & text management though.
Krita is a great free digital painting & animation tool, it has a lot of special features not found in other art engines. What I use it for most would be it’s filters. It has both Internal and G’MIC filters. And those G’Mic filters! 500+ available filters! It also has the most non-destructive workflow for artists with so many different types of layer options. The reference tool it has is really nice, I wish other companies built something similar. It also has your standard Drawing Assistants, Full Color Management, HDR Painting, Python Scripting, PSD Support, Audio Support for Animation, Customizable onion skinning, and so much more! I love the how the brush was built to be both a brush and easer, the Brush Stabilizers are good, as is the Brush Engines, it also has a Wrap-around mode for creating tiles/textures/repeat patterns.
Blender an all in one tool – 3D modeling, Animation, 2D animation, Video compositing, VFX, Shaders, Sculpting, Python scripting, all in real time. No need to wait for rendering! Not with EEVEE! Super easy to use and work with.
If you have worked with other 3D modeling/animation etc tools, they made made it easier then ever to transition so it’s a great time to try it out now.
Screen to Gif
Easy to use free open source screen recorder! Check it out.
Yay! Source control! Once you understand source control you will never go back! Github Desktop makes it easy to get started. It’s great for working in games as you can upload your files, makes some tweaks, upload it to the server – realize you made a mistake and revert back. 👍 … Or you can zip up your file, make a terrible mistake, and unzip that last file you saved because you made a back-up the old fashioned way.
In all seriousness it’s like the ultimate undo button with comments and notes, the ability to use branches so you can experiment with files before committing them to the repository. And it’s simple enough artists can use this with Unity, or Love or whatever framework/engine/library you want to work with. If you find yourself hating Unity Collab with hair pulling wait times, you’ll love this, skip the wait, have a better history and work without fear!
Notion. For those you like, man I wish I had something like google docs but like better.. Well this is for you! Make your notes public websites, or make your spreadsheet private, make it easy to share or hide it away. You want checkboxes next to your spreadsheets and an embedded pdf? They got you covered!
I like the whole Customize Everything part and the Embed your current tools and drag & drop and just the whole stuff everything in one spot philosophy. I also like the endless templates available… Not that I really use them but I like that idea. You can use it for Kanban boards, tables, lists, Wikis, blog posts, Notes & docs, complicated math equations, websites and your own private recipe book.
It’s free but I ended up liking it so much I have the $5 plan for unlimited space.
My go to game engine. Before I used Unity, I used Game Maker for many years. I loved Game Maker and it was built well for 2D games. I created art software in it and other games but it was limited in that it could not handle 3D very well. I started teaching myself Unity once I got to the point I wanted to understand 3D. I struggled. I hated Unity in the beginning, I was overwhelmed with C# the first year but eventually figured it out and now C# is my favorite programming language.
I prefer Unity over Unreal mainly because it’s easier to program in right away and because it runs on low end machines better. If you are looking for something more high end Unreal would be the way to go, but if you just want to make Switch or Mobile games, Unity is better suited.
For those looking for a brief UI overview for small projects, a UI Stylesheet works alright. It’s not as fancy as a full on style guide but for smaller projects it may be what you need as you work out different UI ideas. If you are working on anything longer then 2 weeks, I recommend building a style guide or else you will very likely suffer.
Having a style guide gives you a clear vision of why you made these decisions, this reduces debate.
It’s nice to have a document to refer back to 6 months later when you aren’t sure what size this box was or what color you used on an icon..
You have guidelines ready for if you add new teammates!
I personally think the history of the design is an important aspect to add to the guide unless you can expect the specs and requirements to never change on the project.
Creating a guide alongside with UX reasoning also helps you understand why your UI is laid in the way it is.
While working on Roguecraft Squadron (An RTS computer game) I went through many many many many different versions of UI. It was hard for me to see the big picture or what direction we should go in because the gameplay was not fleshed out all the way. Another issue was the speed of development. Originally this game was built in 3 days so the UI was choppy and very light. I didn’t know back then about better ways to think about development.
I did not know how to design for long term projects and that made designing UI very challenging.
I was thinking after the 3 day game jam, since we were so successful, we should continue development on the game. We continued to do so and did user testing at a local game meetup’s among other places. We would have people play and we would try to figure out ways to improve the game and make it more fun. While our user testing with formal experience was limited, we made the best of it. We would basically sit a user down and watch them play and ask them questions were they struggled.
I was still learning how to create UI during this process, and things such as 9 slicing. Since this was built in the LÖVE Framework it was much more restricted then something like as the Unity Game Engine that has a interface I can work with. While I could build designs, the feasibility of designs was limited because of time constricts and limits within the framework.
Now as I worked on changing UI throughout the process I realized had we just decided on a style and covered constraints early on it would have saved a lot of frustration in the process. Towards the end we ended up stripping out any fancy effects I had in mind and keeping it very basic so we could finish the project.
Now you might ask yourself what is a stylesheet?
A stylesheet is a way to glance over all your visual elements so you can see if they work together. I can’t remember the original creator of the this PS stylesheet template but I liked the idea. It was a way to quickly compare elements and see if they worked together. A quick mock-up so to speak. The idea is to test colors, patterns, fonts and other styles together to see if they work together. You can then create different styles and compare them.
Well near the end as we decided to overhaul the UI to a simple version then I went about trying to make sense of the UI. At that point colors were random and did not work well together and things were becoming hard to understand, the other problem was we introduced new artists that didn’t understand our UI guidelines (Maybe because we didn’t have any then??) so the art we received was completely in the wrong style. If you work on a project for a few years without proper planning – original designs and plans get muddled. Sometimes the worse thing you can do is continue to try and improve something in your current direction.
What I would recommend if I were to fix this – Ask 3 important questions
First separate out the elements, compare them to one another. Do the UI elements feel like they fit together? Do they all share similar styles, sizes and color schemes? What doesn’t fit? What does fit? Does spacing and size feel right? I feel that spacing and sizing of our UI could have used work. As the art we received from two new artists did not fit but I couldn’t argue that out of the project as it was already commissioned for and we didn’t want people to feel bad.
Second, can you tell what the theme is from the color scheme? Why are the colors chosen? What is the meaning behind the colors? I think overall our UI colors worked but could have been more focused.
Third – do the elements themselves feel like they belong with the rest of the content? (The game in this case). In the last version of our UI I would say no. The rest of the game is detailed, but the UI is strangely not. It doesn’t feel connected to the world in my opinion.
Using this process I believe we could have worked out a UI that felt better connected to the game.
There were numerous time constricts with the design and what the programmers could do so sometimes you just have to let it go and just find doable fixes the programmer will okay for your deadline.
If you want to see behind the scenes on some of the ideas for the UI why not look at the notes on GitHub?
Here you can see the crazy design process on RCS. Design is messy, frustrating, and getting a win like getting the programmer to add a UI back button can really feel like a victory (I mean I really fought for a back button on all the main screens, it was like not until we were going to release 2 years later we added one).
Here you can see my journey of learning how to write better tickets, create better designs, and figure out better project management. Lots & lots of mistakes but I slowly learned how to improve. Not everything is here but here are a few examples of stuff I’ve worked on.
I never claimed to be a good designer and I sure learned a lot over a few years working with designing screens. What I learned most of all is…
Use a style guide next time!
A part of me would like to write a guide on a style guide for RCS sometime when I have more free time. Considering this has been a pet project for so many years, it’s nice to work on in my free time but I always have so many other projects going on, we’ll see when it happens.
Hey, I thought I’d make a very brief tutorial on creating a font in fontforge, for more advanced tutorials I highly recommend this kid on youtube.
To get started install fontforge. Now by default FontForge wants to open a font, but today I was going to cover going over a font from scratch. It’s still a good idea though to start with a base font then modify from there, but for today only I was going to cover some of the most used characters.
Hit New to Get Started
I started a font with the New button instead of opening a font. You’ll notice the first 32 characters are strange looking. I’ve marked them below.
Font sections are divided into 3 parts or more.
The first few characters in a beginning of a font are reserved for font formatting and other functions; they are called Control codes. These characters are used to check when a file ends, how to handle backspaces, what to do if the font errors out etc. They are basically directions so anything that wants to use this font knows how. For a little more info you can look at each characters function here.
The 3 parts to a font are control codes, basic Latin, and a supplement
Now the next thing I’ll point out is this font is encoded to be a generic Latin based font, if you wish to use a different language you can change the encoding to some other format. Changing the encoding can change the basic latin and the supplement characters/symbols included.
Encoding > Reencode > other code option
No manner what you form of Latin you switch to, your basic Latin (The top section) will remain the same, the bottom section will change depending on how you encoded it. Switching to encoding to some other format outside of Latin such as SJIS (Kanji) will also change some characters in the basic Latin section.
If you need to use a particular character or language look for it here and ensure you have the correct encoding.
Find a character and click on the box below to work on modifying it. If it has an X in the box it merely means it is empty with no data. We’ll need to start filling this in.
Here is the Outline Glyph View, this is where you will be able to edit or add glyphs.
Let me break these terms down in real simple terms
Font Max Ascent Line – The highest point of the font, anything above gets cut off or starts to overlap another another character
Font Max Descent Line – The lowest point of the font, anything below this gets cut off or starts to overlap another another character
Left Side Bearing – Anything further left gets cut off or starts to overlap another another character
Right Side Bearing – Anything further right gets cut off or starts to overlap another another character
Baseline – This is where the base of your character sits, characters like Y or G will often have descenders that fall below a baseline.
Importing an SVG
One of the nice things about fontForge is it allows you to easily import SVG, bitmap and other file types you can use as a font. SVG or vectors will be clean and clean nicely, other file types may cause other issues.
To import an SVG you can go to File > Import and select the file where ever you left it last.
You can adjust the bearings by clicking and dragging them, this removes unused space.
Quick drawing help
Now if you want to create your own character I won’t go into a lot of detail but will give you some pointers. A character is full of points, these points can be made into different types of points- Curve points, H/V Curve points, Coins or corner points, Tangent points. These different types of points change what you can control on a curve. You can check out the manual for more info.
Try to click on a point and drag it out. The o’s are a point and the x’s are an anchor used to control the point.
I’m not going to go into what these tools do. Experiment and play with them. But let me go over three more important points.
1. right click any point to convert to a different type of point.
2. Go to Element > Overlap to change how shapes are combined or intersected
3. Check what clockwise direction a shape is facing to see if it’s visible. If it’s the wrong clockwise direction, it’s invisible.
Extra tidbits – Coping & Pasting Glyphs
You can copy & paste letters really quickly just by right clicking and pasting on letter and selecting a place to paste. This also a quick way to clear glyphs too.
Extra tidbits – Changing ascent/descent lines
You’ll notice the Max Ascent Line and Max Decent line can’t be dragged as this applies to all characters. To change this you’ll need to exit the letter and return to the main screen from here go to Element > Font Info.
Extra tidbits – How to prepare an image for import
Some quick things here, the default max height for a character is 1000 pixels. Width doesn’t matter as much as you can adjust the bearings easily but a good starting point is creating a file 1000 x 1000 pixels in whatever software you choose – be it Affinity Design, Photoshop, Illustrator, Krita, Inkscape etc whatever.
Your baseline is general 200 pixels from the bottom of the image. You can use a rectangle for something as a guildeline and just remove it when you export. I’d probably start with an open source font from Google fonts, free and open source is a great starting point.
Here you can see the character imported after the letter was converted to curves in Affinity Design.
Extra tidbits – Exporting a font
You can quickly export a font with File > Generate Font.
As long as you don’t have any big errors this should be fine.
Won’t it be nice if you were designing a project and decided you wanted to use an icon or symbol instead of typing out a word (to save space or improve understanding, etc) perhaps an icon or emoji for a flower(🌷)?
This is where software that support’s font glyphsreally shines. While fonts like these are often rereferred to as decorative fonts or image based fonts they aren’t always. They may just be regular fonts with added characters, symbols, or ligatures. What are ligatures you may ask? Ligatures are combinations of letters that result in a fancy and stylish version when used together, they also reduce the space of two characters into one.
The most common ligature you likely use everyday is the ampersand (&) this symbol is the Latin conjunctive word et (e + t) which basically translates to “and”.
How Do I Get Glyphs?
I already wrote a brief post earlier about different font file types. This is important because I’ll be focusing on the OTF file type, a font type that allows the use of emoji’s because of the powerful glyphs support. TTF and PSF has very limited support for extra characters like glyphs and while currently Photoshop and other Adobe software support SVG type fonts they have numerous downsides such as scaling and resolution support issues – to use a “safe” font that does not suffer these problems I stick to OTF. Due to TrueType being most compatible most fonts are still being created in ttf and the largest in the world – Code2000 (20 years old now and now abandoned) is still a great starting point for emoji fonts particularly for kaomoji later referenced in this post. Code2000 even includes unusual glyphs for Klingon and Cirth and others. In total the code2000+ fonts have around 90,000 glyphs all created as far as I know by James Kass.
Affinity software, Adobe software and most other software that supports glyphs works well with OTF and such is a safe bet. So if you are looking for good glyph fonts look for OTF & TT fonts for the best range of characters.
Where can I get an emoji font?
While currently emoji fonts are limited in the sense there are not many fully supported fonts released for free almost every operating system (OS) at this point uses a custom one. To see every OS system emoji font you can check here and compare them at Emojipedia.
If you want to download an emoji font I suggest Google’s emoji font Noto (Noto Emoji) or OpenMoji (Despite those both being TTF). Most other emoji fonts don’t seem to have a lot of support right now…
You may find copying this symbol into a text box doesn’t work though and ask yourself why not? It works on Firefox or Microsoft Edge or Google Chrome etc. There are two reasons it won’t properly work.
Why Fonts Won’t Render
There are two basic reasons a font will not render.
You did not install the font or you did not select the font when typing.
The font does not have a glyph for that symbol.
… Extremely rare but I have a third reason, corruption to the font. I’ve been able to fix this by re-exporting or changing the font to OTF using software such as FontForge. This was the case for a font where select characters would not show such as !#@ etc. I may later create a tutorial on troubleshooting fonts.
How to Set up Glyphs in Affinity Publisher
First step is selecting the correct font, after selecting your text tool of choice change the font.
From here you can search for emoji’s try typing in “cat”, you should see a range of cat emoji’s popping up. Unfortunately, it does not support emoji search so pasting 🐈 into the search bar will not result in it finding the cat emoji. You will notice recent emoji’s are collected at the bottom of the glyph, if you use a particular font often that will also show there.
Extra Tips & Questions
Can I use windows & Mac Emoji’s?
With windows you can hold the windows key + (.) period key to open the emoji window, just click an emoji to paste, it looks weird but converts over correctly if you click on the text area, it should convert over if supported. It can get a little finicky, but I was able to convert window symbols into the noto font this way.
There is something similar you can do with mac that is along the same lines…
Does this work with Japanese kaomoji?
Yes, *＊✿❀ kaomoji ❀✿＊* works fine with this, also long as the font supports all the same characters.
Does this allow for cool color combo’s?
No, this font is treated like normal text and that all you can do is change the text color like normal. You can always convert the text into a shape and recolor it if you prefer.
Why not use dingbat fonts?
You can, this just gives you another option. Dingbat fonts like Entypo are really limited though.
Understanding a little about fonts and typography can go a long way in describing how you think you text should be handled. Typography is often used to connect the reader to the words, and is important when thinking about the design and what you want to emphasize. Here is a quick overview of of some typography terms to get you started.
First what is a font?
A font is a graphical representation of text that can include letters, symbols, sizes, styles and sometimes even color. Fonts are stored on a computer and allow you to change how your text looks.
Before fonts were stored on a computer they were made of metal and were used to print text and other symbols on a page. A font was composed of sorts or metal pieces placed in a line on a composing stick to create sentences.
A collection of fonts is called a typeface or font family. Below is an example of different Imprint fonts in the Imprint typeface. Some Imprint font examples would include Imprint Regular, Imprint Italic, Imprint Bold, Imprint Shadowed and Imprint Shadowed Italic.
There are a variety of types of fonts out there. Here is a starting point for understanding some main differences, this can be split up further into another 15 categories, but the below should be enough for you to grasp differences in type.
Script – Personal Handwriting
Decorative – Oddball text that can be a mix of styles or a completely new style
Sans serif – Playful geometric text with no overhanging serifs
Serif – Soft traditional text with curved overhanging serifs
Slab serif – Blocky text with overhanging straight/angular serifs
Sometimes text just feels off- a good layout will work to fix spacing issues. Leading is the space between each fonts baseline, you can use leading to fit more or fill out text paragraph height. Kerning is the spacing between letters, to focus on the letters spread them out. Tracking is the space between words, adjusting this can remove orphan words or even out a paragraph. Both kerning and tracking can be used to adjust paragraph width (and sometimes height if orphan words are hanging off the paragraph).
Types of font files on a computer
Before many font options existed something called Adobe’s PostScript(PS) was used to display fonts. It send the data for printing to a printer but was slow and and struggled with some fonts. Apple then stepped in and created TrueType (TTF) and it allowed a lot more freedom with font handling and no longer required the printer to handle the font data, they also created a fair amount of free fonts.
Adobe and Microsoft teamed up to create OpenType(OTF) a file type that extended TTF and added more functionality and storage in the font type. Some of the new functionality included Ligatures, Glyphs, Alternate characters and more.
In a nutshell OTF allows greater control and options for one font and is recommend for more advanced typesetting. You can see more options in software like Photoshop and can avoid installing 3-4 TTF fonts with 1 OTF font.
Another somewhat rarely used font file is a type calledOpenType-SVG. It just has some additional color options/image options but not a lot of applications support it so I still don’t recommend it yet. It works fine in Adobe software but outside that it is problematic. The other thing is with so many new options it has it’s draw backs like certain fonts will be pixelated if at the wrong scale unlike traditional OpenType.